Yes, you can place an After market Order (AMO) 5.30 pm onwards. On the next trading day, the orders will first get validated and then go to the exchange.
All the AMO orders of the scrips, which are allowed to trade in the pre-open market (9 AM to 9:07 AM), will get validated and placed in the market at 9 AM. Those scrips, which are not allowed in the pre-open market, will get rejected at the same time. However, clients can place the AMO orders for all the scrips (including non pre-open market scrips) between 9.07 AM to 9.15 AM. Those AMO orders placed between 9.07 AM and 9.15 AM will get validated and placed in the market at 9.15 AM.